The political landscape of Balochistan has often been remained under the control of local tribal chieftains and feudal lords. The middle class of the province could never taste power in the provincial political setup. Nawabs and Sardars remained the real repositories of tribal and political power in province. Due to the presence of deep rooted tribal system, tribal chieftains and feudal lords managed to come in power with little pre-election campaign. Instead of few political parties in province, all political parties are headed by Nawabs and Sardars. Likewise, in six decades long political history of Balochistan, only one Chief Minister of Balochistan, Dr Abdul Malik Baloch, elected from middle class while the other CMs remained Nawabs and Sardars.
However, after the elimination of One Unit in 1970, Balochistan gained the status of province. Later, in the general elections, National Awami Party (NAP) managed to form government in Balochistan and Kyhber Pakthonkawa respectively with visible majority. The government of NAP could not complete its tenure and terminated after nine months and the political leadership of NAP was sent to jail. After the formation of NAP government, all governments in Balochistan were based on coalitions. Throughout the globe, the coalition governments are not perceived as strong governments due to the contrasting priorities and manifestos of various political parties. The ruling government even could not pass a single bill without the permission of coalition parties present in coalition government.
Therefore, service-oriented parties give preference to the formation of government in majority and complete tenure so that service and welfare of people could be ensured with true party spirit. Similarly, the deprivation feelings in Balochistan are on its climax due to the constant coalition governments of tribal and feudal lords who never gave attention towards changing the life style of common man.
The Central and Provincial Secretary of Pastoonkawa Milli Awami Party, Abdul Raheem Ziarhatwal while speaking to Balochi Zind stated that the political parties in Pakistan have often been remained powerless. Absence of authority to the representatives of people has remained a major issue for the political parties of Pakistan. As in 1973, the leader of Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) Zulfiqar Ali Buhtto played significant role in the formation of 1973’s constitution, but he was later hanged to death unconstitutionally. Similarly, democracy could not flourish in Pakistan. As in the government of PPP, 18th amendment was approved to ensure provision of equal rights to relatively deprived provinces. But conspiracies are being hatched to roll back 18th amendment. Likewise, the constitution of Pakistan urges institutions to must not violate their pre-defined limitations. The civilian institutions of the state have constitutional right to ensure implementation of their authority. Through the implementation of democratic principles such as the supremacy of parliament, rule of law and equality, country can move towards lasting peace and stability.
Moreover, in Pakistan, the political parties try to bring their manifestos into reality but hurdles are created for their smooth functioning. Likewise, in order to rectify the issue of country, free and fair general elections are necessary. But in Pakistan instead of free and fair elections, politicians are elected through selection. Through their selection, the issues of people multiplied as they are not the real representatives of people. In democratic setup, political parties are answerable to people for their actions. The real representatives of people perceive themselves the custodians of the rights of people.
Similarly in the previous general election of 2018, Pastoonkawa Milli Awami Party and National Party were ditched through ballot rigging. As law and order situation in Balochistan was considerably improved in the government of National Party in province. Before the general elections of 2013, the law and order situation inside province was deplorable. But the government of National Party in province improved the law and order situation inside the province. Through ballot rigging, public directly get effected to it.
Awami National Party leader and former Senator Dawood Achakzai told Balochi Zindh, It depends on nature of political parties’ election manifestos, leadership and conditions in which they pursue deliverance of goals inherited in their party manifestos. Often, we see larger goals of political parties enshrined in their manifestos being restrained by the nature of state systems, democratic, authoritarian and semi-democratic. In Pakistan we can give examples of N-League. They pursued their vision but as they were obstructed from winning another election, now we see no 2025 Vision in practice. ANP, NP and PPP manifestos and their incomplete vision is because of the same conditions. Further, leadership matters. How strongly they form established and pragmatic vision of their manifestos. ANP did complete part of its manifesto vision in 2008-2013 government of Pakhtunkhwa. In education they almost did what they wanted to do.We can say that ANP partly achieved manifesto targets.
Parties fail in delivering masses because of many reasons. First, challenges. They are facing challenges in the form of sociopolitical, economic, Democratic and security issues. Political parties are not free to aware people because of these issues. Secondly, parties compromise on critical issues because of internal weaknesses. Not implementing these aspects results in low party performance on mass awareness.
The Central Leader of Balochistan National Party (Mengal) Ghulam Nabi Mari while speaking with the reporter of Balochi Zind said the basic reason for non compliance of political manifesto is the power or authority. It is not necessary that the political parties may achieve full authority to rule and to fulfill their manifesto. They may form a coalition government or may sit in opposition after the election results which can hinder them away from their manifesto.
The grounds on which political parties contest an election may differ the scenario develops after the elections. As politics is all about possibilities and compromises. It is pertinent to mention that political parties do not change their key points in manifesto but may deviate from less important agendas. The reason may be,, not suitable conditions., political pressure from other parties, internal or external disputes which may result devastating effects on other important points in manifesto.
Well in actual there is no such political party exists which fully implemented its manifesto after the election, because the ideal scenario does not exist in politics even a political party may have 2/3 majority.
The political party from which i belong is a nationalist party. I would categorize its agenda mainly into two ways
- Political Solution of Balochistan Problems As there is an armed struggle from some groups. My party demands a peaceful and political matured negotiations from all the stakeholders to resolve the unrest of Balochistan.
- Human Development Secondly, to improve the lives and conditions of the people by providing them all basic needs, i-e, health, education, employment opportunities, and infrastructure.
The politics in Balochistan is quite different from othet provinces of Pakistan. In this province the politics mainly revolves around personalities. A part from party affiliations the personalities wins from their respective constituencies. So deliverance in this regards does not matter much in Balochistan political structure.
Turn outs in elections shows the interest of masses in political system. In Balochistan the turn out always remain poor. Its mainly due to many factors.
- Establishment manipulation in election process
- Tribal conflicts
- Unsuitable candidates’ nominations from political parties Balochistan politics
Masses are reluctant to vote due to the reasons mentioned above. In spite of the awareness by political parties, masses behaviour does not change as they are aware that their vote may not change the general structure of political system. So they show least interest.